Olmstead RG, Depamphilis CW, Wolfe AD, Young ND, Elisons WJ, Reeves PA
A molecular systematic study of Scrophulariaceae sensu lato using DNA sequences of three plastid genes (rbcL, ndhF, and rps2) revealed at least five distinct monophyletic groups. Thirty-nine genera representing 24 tribes of the Scrophulariaceae s.l. (sensu lato) were analyzed along with representatives of 15 other families of Lamiales. The Scrophulariaceae s.s. (sensu stricto) include part or all of tribes Aptosimeae, Hemimerideae, Leucophylleae, Manuleae, Selagineae, and Verbasceae (= Scrophularieae) and the conventional families Buddlejaceae and Myoporaceae. Veronicaceae includes all or part of tribes Angelonieae, Antirrhineae, Cheloneae, Digitaleae, and Gratioleae and the conventional families Callitrichaceae, Globulariaceae, Hippuridaceae, and Plantaginaceae. The Orobanchaceae include tribes Buchnereae, Rhinantheae, and the conventional Orobanchaceae. All sampled members of Orobanchaceae are parasitic, except Lindenbergia, which is sister to the rest of the family. Family Calceolariaceae Olmstead is newly erected herein to recognize the phylogenetic distinctiveness of tribe Calceolarieae. The Calceolariaceae are close to the base of the Lamiales. The Stilbaceae are expanded by the inclusion of Halleria. Mimulus does not belong in any of these five groups.
Olmstead RG, Depamphilis CW, Wolfe AD, Young ND, Elisons WJ, Reeves PA. Disintegration of the scrophulariaceae.. American journal of botany. 2001 Feb; 88(2):348-61.